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Aside from Tulving, others named the important aspects of recollection which includes visual imagery, narrative structure, retrieval of semantic information and the feelings of familiarity.

For example, a fear of dogs after being bitten by a dog is a result of episodic learning.

There are essentially nine properties of episodic memory that collectively distinguish it from other types of memory.

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Episodic memory can be thought of as a "map" that ties together items in semantic memory.

For example, all encounters with how a "dog" looks and sounds will make up the semantic representation of that word.

However, this theory was rejected when Howard and Kahana completed experiments on latent semantic analysis (LSA) that supported the opposite.

Instead of an increase in semantic similarity when there was a decrease in the strength of temporal associations, the two worked together so semantic cues on retrieval were strongest when episodic cues were strong as well.

All episodic memories concerning a dog will then reference this single semantic representation of "dog" and, likewise, all new experiences with the dog will modify the single semantic representation of that dog.

Together, semantic and episodic memory make up our declarative memory.For example, if one remembers the party on their 6th birthday, this is an episodic memory.They allow an individual to figuratively travel back in time to remember the event that took place at that particular time and place.Without the medial temporal lobe, one is able to form new procedural memories (such as playing the piano) but cannot remember the events during which they happened (See the hippocampus and memory).The prefrontal cortex (and in particular the right hemisphere) is also involved in the formation of new episodic memories (also known as episodic encoding).These are a subjective sense of time (or mental time travel), connection to the self, and autonoetic consciousness.

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