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See more information about "Strata" Smith and his original geologic map of England.

Information about Simon Winchester's delightful biography of Smith, The Map That Changed the World is available at Tree-Ring dating is based on the principle that the growth rings on certain species of trees reflect variations in seasonal and annual rainfall.

pollen dating-14

A simple method for preparing pollen concentrates for (super 14) C AMS dating is applied to organic and inorganic deposits from a peat bog in south Westland, New Zealand, from which preliminary AMS dating indicated age inversions and severe younger carbon contamination problems.

The AMS ages of the pollen concentrates provided consistently older age estimates for each sample than ages derived from their respective organic residue or combined pollen and organic residue fractions.

Trees from the same species, growing in the same area or environment will be exposed to the same conditions, and hence their growth rings will match at the point where their lifecycles overlap.

Earth's oldest living inhabitant "Methuselah" at 4,767 years, has lived more than a millennium longer than any other tree.

Keyed to the relative time scale are examples of index fossils, the forms of life which existed during limited periods of geologic time and thus are used as guides to the age of the rocks in which they are preserved.

William "Strata" Smith, a civil engineer and surveyor, was well acquainted with areas in southern England where "limestone and shales are layered like slices of bread and butter." His hobby of collecting and cataloging fossil shells from these rocks led to the discovery that certain layers contained fossils unlike those in other layers.

Using these key or index fossils as markers, Smith could identify a particular layer of rock wherever it was exposed.

Because fossils actually record the slow but progressive development of life, scientists use them to identify rocks of the same age throughout the world.

Overview of Methods Superposition Stratigraphy Dendrochronology Radiocarbon C14 Radiometric Dating Methods Obsidian Hydration Dating Paleomagnetic/Archaeomagnetic Luminescence Dating Methods Amino Acid Racemization Fission-track Dating Ice Cores Varves Pollens Corals Cation Ratio Fluorine Dating Patination Oxidizable Carbon Ratio Electron Spin Resonance Cosmic-ray Exposure Dating This is an excellent overview of dating methodologies, and is a chapter in a textbook on Archaeology.

You may find it useful for the clear definitions, and for excellent links on a variety of topic.

The most compelling argument for an age of the earth of 4.5 billion years are the large number of independent tests that have been used to confirm this date.

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