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Gregory's successors were largely dominated by the Exarch of Ravenna, the Byzantine emperor's representative in the Italian Peninsula.These humiliations, the weakening of the Byzantine Empire in the face of the Muslim conquests, and the inability of the emperor to protect the papal estates against the Lombards, made Pope Stephen II turn from Emperor Constantine V. Pepin the Short subdued the Lombards and donated Italian land to the papacy.Other scholars and historians disagree, citing the historical records of St. Irenaeus who recorded the linear succession of Bishops of Rome (the popes) up until their own times.

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When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (800) as Roman Emperor, he established the precedent that, in Western Europe, no man would be emperor without being crowned by a pope.

This period includes the Saeculum obscurum, the Crescentii era, and the Tusculan Papacy.

James the Just, known as "the brother of the Lord", served as head of the Jerusalem church, which is still honored as the "Mother Church" in Orthodox tradition.

Alexandria had been a center of Jewish learning and became a center of Christian learning.

They disagree, however, on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the Bishop of Rome as protos, a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium." In the late 2nd century AD, there were more manifestations of Roman authority over other churches.

In 189, assertion of the primacy of the Church of Rome may be indicated in Irenaeus's Against Heresies (3:3:2): "With [the Church of Rome], because of its superior origin, all the churches must agree ...From an ancient senatorial family, Gregory worked with the stern judgement and discipline typical of ancient Roman rule.Theologically, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook; his popular writings are full of dramatic miracles, potent relics, demons, angels, ghosts, and the approaching end of the world.The papacy came under the control of vying political factions.Popes were variously imprisoned, starved, killed, and deposed by force.The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.

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