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Migrants residing in Europe could continue to sponsor their extended family's immigration and, indeed, relaxation of restrictions on family reunification encouraged further immigration.
The time between the first proposals for a halt and their implementation exacerbated the problem as immigrants hurried to bring over their families, fearful that the doors to Europe would soon close forever.
After World War II, countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany started to allow and even entice foreign workers to come.
In the Netherlands, for example, the number of first- and second-generation Moroccan and Turkish immigrants has increased almost tenfold (see Table 1) since the 1974 halt.
Researchers have long sought to chart the immigration dynamic and to predict future trends.
The arrival of families changed the immigrants' attitudes towards religious and cultural values, transplanting honor culture, modesty standards, and attitudes toward women to the West. Even those who have settled in cities retain a village mentality and are seen as backward by the business and cultural elites in their home countries.
Moroccans who settled in the Netherlands and Belgium, for example, are mostly Berbers from the Rif mountains, not the Arab cultural elite from Casablanca, Rabat, or Fez.
The arrival of families both changed the scale of immigration and the entire character of the immigrant communities.
Immigrants now grew concerned about schooling, health care, and proper housing.
The host European governments understood these migrants to be temporary guest workers as did many of the migrants themselves.
The economic downturn in the early 1970s led European policymakers to realize that immigration was not always a positive phenomenon.
Nielsen, Muslims in Western Europe: Islamic Surveys (New York: Columbia University Press, Oct. Table 4: North Africans in France, 1957-2003 Source: Michele Tribalat, "Counting France's Numbers—Deflating the Numbers Inflation," The Social Contract Journal, Winter 2003-04; Jorgen S.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating