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Cogito ergo sum Method of doubt Method of normals Cartesian coordinate system Cartesian dualism Foundationalism Mathesis universalis Folium of Descartes Dream argument Evil demon Conservation of momentum (quantitas motus)Cartesianism · Rationalism Foundationalism Doubt and certainty Dream argument Cogito ergo sum Trademark argument Causal adequacy principle Mind–body dichotomy Analytic geometry Coordinate system Cartesian circle · Folium Rule of signs · Cartesian diver Balloonist theory Wax argument Res cogitans · Res extensa 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day.

"Descartes said that he did not believe that one must refrain from tears to prove oneself a man." Russell Shorto postulated that the experience of fatherhood and losing a child formed a turning point in Descartes' work, changing its focus from medicine to a quest for universal answers.

In 1633, Galileo was condemned by the Catholic Church, and Descartes abandoned plans to publish Treatise on the World, his work of the previous four years.

The next year, under the name "Poitevin", he enrolled at the Leiden University to study mathematics with Jacobus Golius, who confronted him with Pappus's hexagon theorem, and astronomy with Martin Hortensius.

In October 1630 he had a falling-out with Beeckman, whom he accused of plagiarizing some of his ideas.

It was there that he composed his first essay on method: Regulae ad Directionem Ingenii (Rules for the Direction of the Mind).

In the fall of the same year, in the residence of the papal nuncio Guidi di Bagno, where he came with Mersenne and many other scholars to listen to a lecture given by the alchemist Nicolas de Villiers, Sieur de Chandoux on the principles of a supposed new philosophy, In April 1629 he joined the University of Franeker, studying under Adriaan Metius, living either with a Catholic family, or renting the Sjaerdemaslot, where he invited in vain a French cook and an optician.

In 1641 he published a metaphysics work, Meditationes de Prima Philosophia (Meditations on First Philosophy), written in Latin and thus addressed to the learned.

It was followed, in 1644, by Principia Philosophiæ (Principles of Philosophy), a kind of synthesis of the Discourse on the Method and Meditations on First Philosophy.

Upon exiting, he had formulated analytical geometry and the idea of applying the mathematical method to philosophy.

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